Thursday, 23 June 2016

The Children of Senchán, June 23

I have always been interested in the collective commemorations of groups of saints found in the Irish calendars. There are two such groups remembered at June 23, the Daughters of Moinan, a post on whom can be read here, and The Children of Senchán. Often these groups incorporate the sacred number seven and today's actually comprises fourteen individuals.  I wish it were possible to find out more about them and of their Scottish connection. Canon O'Hanlon brings only the the barest details:
Article III.—The Children of Senchan.
In the Martyrology of Donegal, a festival intended to honour the children of Senchan is set down, at the 23rd of June. Among the saints of Scotland, we find enumerated the fourteen sons of Senchan or Clann Senchan, for this same date.
Article IV.—The Children of Senan.
We read in the Martyrology of Donegal,  that the children of Senan were venerated, at the 23rd of June. We think, however, that this is only another form for a previous entry.
The same double entry for 'Senchán's children and Senán's' is found in the Martyrology of Gorman, but their names are not found at all in the earlier martyrologies of Oengus and Tallaght.

The Calendars edited by the Scottish Bishop Alexander Forbes also list Senchán's clan:
SENCHANIUS, the Fourteen Sons of June 23.—These are probably the Clann Senchain who are commemorated in the Mart. Donegal at 23d June. A curious " Description of the Island of Sanda," by Father Edmund MacCana, makes mention of the sepulchre of the fourteen sons of Senchanius in that island. It is printed with observations by Dr. Reeves in the Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., vol. viii. p. 132.
Father McCana was an Irish Franciscan who visited the island of Sanda, which lies a few miles off the Mull of Kintyre, in the early seventeenth century.  The text published by Bishop William Reeves is written in Latin and includes these details of the twice seven sons of Senchán:

Corpora bis septem, tota veneranda per orbem, 
Senchanii natum Sanda beata tenet.
 Doctorum divumque parens, Hibernia quondam . 
Quos genuit sanctos, Scotia terra tegit .....

The paper is available through the Internet Archive here. If your Latin is as rusty as mine you may find it more useful to consult the reprint in the appendix to a 2010 paper on the island, as it includes a translation, here:

‘Fourteen bodies, throughout the world revered,
Of Senchanius born blessed Sanda holds.
Ireland, the mother of divine teachers, once
Begat the saints whom Scotland’s soil covers....

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Tuesday, 21 June 2016

Saint Sillen, June 21

Canon O'Hanlon brings details of a reputed feast of Saint Sillen (Senilis, Siollán) at June 21. The original source is the Scottish hagiologist, Thomas Dempster (1579-1625). He was something of a hate figure for the Irish as he conveniently ignored the fact that in the early middle ages the term Scotia was applied to Ireland and thus he claimed the myriad of 'Scottish saints' found in the sources for his own country. The name Sillen, or more correctly Siollán, is shared by a number of Irish saints and it seems from what Canon O'Hanlon has to say that the Bollandists linked the June 21 commemoration to the saint of that name who was the teacher of Saint Columbanus. This Sillen or Sinell was associated with an island monastery in Lough Erne, his feast is remembered on November 12. There was also an abbot Siollán of Bangor who had a reputation as a master of the science of the computus, his feast is celebrated on February 28. Whether either of these has any connection to the saint claimed by Dempster as having a feast at June 21 is thus far from clear. But if nothing else Canon O'Hanlon's entry below, from Volume VI of his Lives of the Irish Saints, illustrates some of the difficulties in understanding those lives:

Reputed Feast of St. Senilis.

 According to Dempster, [1] the early teacher of St. Columban in Scotia had a feast, at the 21st of June. He is called Senilis, by that writer, [2] whereas, the true name was Silenis or Sillen. The Bollandists [3] who note this reputed festival, at this day, have nothing more to state about him, and they postpone further mention of him to the 21st of November, the feast of his renowned disciple St. Columban.


[1] In his "Menologium Scotorum." In Dempster's "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," there is no notice taken of him.

[2] Thus : "In Scotia, Senilis S. Columbani praeceptoris." See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 203.

[3] See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iv.,  Junii xxi. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 66.



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Monday, 20 June 2016

Saint Cassán of Cluain-Ratha, June 20

There seems to be some confusion over the date of the feast of Saint Cassán of Cluain-Ratha with a disagreement between earlier and later calendars. The earlier Martyrology of Tallaght records his feast at June 19, whereas the Martyrology of Donegal, compiled in the seventeenth century, records it at June 20. The feast also appears at June 20 in the twelfth-century Martyrology of Gorman, it does not appear at all in the Martyrology of Oengus at either date. Pádraig Ó Riain's Dictionary of Irish Saints lists several holy men of the name Casán, but none of them are linked to a June feast day. Canon O'Hanlon has no further details to bring us, so I do not know when or where this saint flourished:

St. Cassan, of Cluain-ratha.

At the 20th of June, we find the name Cassan, of Cluain-ratha, entered in the Martyrology of Donegal. The Martyrology of Tallagh gives this commemoration, at the previous day.


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Thursday, 9 June 2016

Saint Columba and the Woman Escorted by the Angels to Paradise

June 9 is the feastday of Saint Colum Cille [Columba] of Iona.  As I have previously noted on the blog, Iona's founder shares his feastday with his immediate successor and kinsman, Baithin. Canon O'Hanlon, however, has another feast to record for this day, one which comes directly from Book III of Adamnán's Life of Saint Columba:
Feast of a Holy Woman whose Name is unknown, and who was borne into Heaven by Angels. [Sixth Century.]

At this date, we find introduced into a Calendar the festival of a beatified woman, whose name is not known, but whose soul St. Columkille beheld ascending into Heaven. After a great struggle with demons, the Angels came to receive her into the mansions of everlasting bliss. This festival is noted by the Bollandists, among the pretermitted saints. 
The calendar to which Canon O'Hanlon refers is named in the footnotes as the 'Gynaeceo Arturi'. I was unable to find out any further information on this source. Below is the text from the Life of Saint Columba from which this feast is drawn. It is interesting to note that the witness to this miracle was a Saxon monastic who worked as a baker at the monastery of Iona:
[III 10] Of a vision, in which St. Columba beheld angels bearing to heaven the soul of a virtuous woman

Likewise, on another occasion, when St Columba was dwelling in Iona, one day he suddenly looked up towards heaven and said:

'Happy woman, happy and virtuous, whose soul the angels of God now take to paradise!'

One of the brothers was a devout man called Genereus the Englishman, who was the baker. He was at work in the bakery where he heard St Columba say this. A year later, on the same day, the saint again spoke to Genereus the Englishman, saying:

'I see a marvellous thing. The woman of whom I spoke in your presence a year ago today - look!- she is now meeting in the air the soul of a devout layman, her husband, and is fighting for him together with holy angels against the power of the Enemy. With their help and because the man himself was always righteous, his soul is rescued from the devils' assaults and is brought to the place of eternal refreshment.'
Richard Sharpe, ed. and trans., Life of Saint Columba, (Penguin Classics, 1991), 213.

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Sunday, 22 May 2016

Teach me, O Trinity

E. Hull Poem, Book of the Gael (1913)

To mark Trinity Sunday, below is a poem taken from a 1913 collection of texts and translations by the Anglican writer Eleanor Hull (1860-1935). She is perhaps best known for her English versification of the hymn 'Be Thou My Vision'. Miss Hull contributed translations from Old Irish to many of the scholarly journals of her day and published various books on early Irish history and mythology. The poem below, by the 12th/13th-century writer Muireadhach Albanach Ó Dálaigh, is a beautiful plea to the Holy Trinity:

TEACH ME, O TRINITY

By Murdoch O'Daly, called Murdoch "the Scotchman" (Muredach Albanach), on account of his affection for that country; born in Connaught towards the close of the twelfth century.

TEACH me, O Trinity,
All men sing praise to Thee, 
Let me not backward be, 
Teach me, O Trinity. 

Come Thou and dwell with me, 
Lord of the holy race; 
Make here thy resting-place, 
Hear me, O Trinity. 

That I Thy love may prove. 
Teach Thou my heart and hand. 
Ever at Thy command 
Swiftly to move. 

Like to a rotting tree 
Is this vile heart of me; 
Let me Thy healing see, 
Help me, O Trinity. 

Sinful, beholding Thee; 
Yet clean from theft and blood My hands; 
O Son of God, 
For Mary's love, answer me. 

In my adversity 
No great man stooped to me, 
No good man pitied me, 
God ope'd His heart to me. 

Lied I, as others lie. 
They deceived, so have I, 
On others' lie I built my lie — Will my God pass this by? 

Truth art Thou, truth I crave, 
If on a lie I rest, I'm lost ; 
My vow demands my uttermost; 
Save, Trinity, O save!

Eleanor Hull, ed. Poem Book of the Gael,  Translations from Irish Gaelic Poetry into English Prose and Verse, (London 1912), 156-157.


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Sunday, 15 May 2016

Saint Dubhlitir of Finglas, May 15

May 15 is the commemoration of an eighth-century County Dublin saint, Dubhlitir of Finglas. In common with other monastics from this foundation his passing was recorded in the Irish Annals, as Canon O'Hanlon explains:

St. Dubhlitir, Abbot of Finglas, County of Dublin.

[Eighth Century.]

The death of Faelchu, of Finnghlais, is noticed at A.D. 758. He is supposed to have been identical with a saint similarly designated [feastday September 24]. Again, Caencomhrac, bishop of this place, died A.D. 786 [according to the Annals of the Four Masters]. Contemporaneously with this bishop, and possibly ruling over a monastery during his term of incumbency, Dublitir lived. When he began to govern the monks there has not been ascertained; or what age he had reached, at the date assigned for his death, must yet remain an open question. St. Dubhlitir appears to have lived as a contemporary with St. Aengus the Culdee. Tallagh and Finglas were not very distantly separated, and both of these holy men may have enjoyed the privilege and happiness of a personal acquaintance. As St. Aengus survived, however, it seems pretty certain, he must have known perfectly well the character of this deceased guardian over Finglas Monastery. In the "Felire of Aengus," as preserved in the "Leabhar Breac," and in that copy formerly belonging to St. Isidore's convent, at Rome, a special eulogy has been pronounced, in reference to this holy Abbot, in common with other saints, mentioned in the stanza. The original Irish rann has been obligingly copied and collated, while the English translation has been supplied, by William M. Hennessy, Esq., M.R.I.A.:-

"The grace of the seven-fold Spirit
Poured on great-bright clerics,
Timothy, the rich Saran,
On the festival of renowned Dubhlitir."

However fanciful etymological derivations of Irish names may be regarded, the present holy man's name can literally be Anglicized "black-letter." This term is usually applied to students, who closely apply themselves to books; and, in a double sense, it was most probably appropriate to St. Dubhlitir, whose feast has been assigned for the 15th May. This Dubhlittir, no doubt, was the person referred to in the following entry, in the "Annals of Ulster," at A.D. 779 (780): "An assembly of the synods of the Ui-Neill and the Leinstermen, where there were many anchorites and scribes, over whom Dubhlitter was President". He is briefly alluded to by Colgan, in the Bollandist collection, and also in Manuscript Book of "Extracts," among the Records for Dublin County, at present kept in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. On this day, likewise, the commentator on St. Aengus, and also the Martyrology of Donegal, register Dubhlitir, Abbot of Finnglais-Cainnigh, near Ath-cliath. It must be regarded as the correct date for his death. The present saint's name occurs, at the 15th of May, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh. The year when his demise took place is set down, in the Annals of the Four Masters, as 791. The Annals of Ulster write it, at A.D. 795. His remains were deposited, probably, within the old church walls, or under some now unnoticed sod of the present cemetery, which rises high over the "bright stream," that rushes onward to join the classic Tolka River. The present holy man was also venerated in Scotland, at the 15th of May, as we find from the entry in the Kalendar of Drummond. A considerable share of misunderstanding has prevailed—while even distinguished Irish historians and topographers appear to have fallen into errors- in reference to the special Patron Saint of Finglas. The original name of this village seems to have been derived from the small, rapid, and tortuous "bright stream," that runs through a sort of ravine, beside the present cemetery. Towards the close of the eighth, or in the beginning of the ninth century— as we find in the "Feilire of Aengusa"—this place had been denominated Finnghlais-Cainnigh, after some earlier patron, called Cainnigh or Canice. He is generally thought to have been the Patron Saint of Ossory, as no other one, bearing such a name, can be found in connexion with this spot. Whether or not, a monastery had been founded by Cainneach, while under the tuition of Mobhi Clairenech, Abbot of Glasnevin, and who died in 544, can scarcely be determined. It seems probable, at least, that a cell, or monastic institute, had been here erected by St. Canice, and before the close of the sixth century...

Tuesday, 10 May 2016

The Rule of Saint Comgall

Saint Comgall, founder of the monastery of Bangor, had a reputation for upholding a strict monastic rule. In 1904 scholar John Strachan published the text of an Old Irish Metrical Rule associated with the saint but argued that the text dated from the late eighth century, two centuries after the time of Saint Comgall. Saint Adamnan's writings mention a Rule of Comgall, but it is not possible to determine if this is the text  to which he refers. A more recent translation appears in the 1996 anthology by Uinseann Ó Maidín OCR, The Celtic Monk - Rules and Writings of Early Irish Monks. As the Internet Archive have placed Strachan's translation in the public domain I reproduce it below, but for access to the footnotes and the Old Irish text please consult the original volume. As with all monastic texts there is much for Christians in all states of life to profitably reflect on:

AN OLD-IRISH METRICAL RULE

1 Preserve the Rule of the Lord; therein thou runnest no risk. It is better that thou transgress it not, as long as thy life lasts.

2 This is the essence [lit. what is best] of the Rule: love Christ, hate wealth; piety to thee towards the King of the sun and smoothness towards men.

3 Continuance in penitence — wonderful the road — keenness, persistence therein; heed of death everyday; good will to every man.

3a. A hundred prostrations to Him at the Beati morning and evening, if it be accomplished, the reward which he will have therefor in the Kingdom of Heaven will not be paltry.

3b. Every morning at the time let him bow down promptly thrice. Over his breast, over his face, let him put the sign of Christ's cross.

4 Aim not at a ... . devotion. Eat thy due portion of food. The short gross devotion, it is the Devil who has devised(?)it.

5 Make not a fire of fern ; then its extinction is nigh. Be not a sedge against a stream, that thy devotion may be lasting.

6 If the battles overtake thee, it is better for thee that thou shouldst not be slack : a battle against many vices, a battle against the body, a battle against the Devil.

7 These are thy three rules — have thou naught else dearer — patience, humility, and the love of the Lord in thy heart.

8 Through fear is the love of the King who healeth every misery. It is from love of Him that His will and His commandment are cared for.

9 Love of God .... the earth, fetters thoughts speedily. Fear hath power over repentance. Love determines piety.

10 Whether in fear or in hurt let us pray to Christ that we may escape (?). The manner of the penance our patron shall determine.

11 The eight chiefs of the vices which slay the soul of every man, I know virtues which extinguish them all.

12 This is the virtue which works long consolation, that in every desire which thou desirest thou shouldst exercise patience.

12a. My own soul said to my .... body (?) if it might be moved upon this earth after being for a time in blasphemy.

13 To sing the three fifties from tierce to tierce, if it be possible, by the ordinances of the ancients, there will be a day that it will be a help.

13a. Three hundred prostrations every day, and three at every canonical hour, thy soul will not be at the judgment of the King on the Day of Doom.

13b.Two hundred prostrations every day to the Lord with a diligent booklet, they shall be performed without any defect always save on the Lord's day.

13c. Two hundred blows on the hands in every Lent, it will be a help. From every pride that they shall be guilty of they sain (?) every guilt upon them.]

14 Light, wonderful, and mild is the yoke of the Lord. To go to a devout sage is good to direct one's path.

15 A devout sage to guide thee, 'tis good to avoid punishment. Though great thou deem thy firmness, be not under thine own guidance.

16 It is better for thee to avoid those whom thou mayest expect to slay thee, a fool pious but ignorant, a sage impenitent and ....

16a. Practise the liberty (?) of the elders. Be not foolish like .... Before afterwards (?) in every place [to be] in obedience to Jesus will be better (?),

16b. Practise deliverance from captivity for God's folk — 'tis no shame — that thou mayest not unawares play I alone, you alone, before the Devil.

17 Though great injuries come to thee, lament not thereat ; because they are not more abundant than those of the King who sends them.

18 Though thou deem the guests many, if thou renderest [them] their service due, beg of the king with whom thou art, buy not aught for them.

19 Go not thyself to solicit; let no one go from thee to beg. Remain at home in prayer ; ever endure thy poverty.

20 Be not hard and niggardly. Be not deaf to prayer to thee. Refuse not, solicit not. Love not a man's wealth.

21 Thou shalt not sell, thou shalt not buy God's mercy, thou shalt not hide it. What thou earnest off over and above thy sufficiency, thou shalt give to the poor.

22 Be not given to buying and trafficking. Let thy piety to Christ be great. Beg not of a king in Ireland, if thou be a vassal of Mary's Son.

23 Repentance with sluggishness (?) after being in great sin, small is its reward in heaven, its trial in fire will be great.

24 If there should be anyone who should take the path of repentance, advance a step every day, practise not the ways of a charioteer.

25 If thou shouldst part from the world, thou hast taken the path of sufferings. Flee from it, look not, as [though it were] a pursuit wherewith thou wert pursued.

26 If thou shouldst have a son or householdry that thou hast determined to part from, thou shalt not seek them, thou shalt not think of them, as though thou wert in the earth.

27 If thou practise repentance, if thy heart is meek, this way is straight to the King of the Kingdom of Heaven.

27a. A hundred blows on thy hands, in every Lent it will be a help. For every pride that they [the hands] have practised, miss not a single time [lit without want upon them] (?).

28 If it be thy desire that thy soul be as white as the swan, no other can strive after aught for thy soul in thy stead.

28a. If thou art a shepherd to church-tenants, it is fitting that thou compassionate them and love them ....

28b. If tenant service come to thee, if thy frequent trial be pleasant (?), preserve thou three words till thou art carried to thy graveyard.

28c. These are thy three words — it is neither shorter nor longer — Arco fuin imandairi thou shalt say every day.

29 This is the Rule of the Lord. Thou mayest prove it. No imperfect one understands how to be under the rule of my.....

J. Strachan, An Old Irish Metrical Rule,  Eriu Vol 1, (1904), 191-208